Although Forensic science and criminology both approach issues of crime and criminal behavior from a scientific viewpoint, the two disciplines are quite different. Criminology and forensic science differ in scope and application. Forensic science applies the tools and methods of the natural sciences, especially biology and chemistry, to issues of a legal nature. They collect evidence at crime scenes and analyze the materials in laboratories. Forensic science is thus an applied natural science. Criminology, in contrast, is a specialized social science that evolved from sociology. Criminology uses sociological theories and methods to study criminal behavior and how societies respond to crime.
Criminology is the scientific study of social crimes, criminals and criminal behavior, crime regulations and crime prevention methodology. The field of study known as criminology involves the studying of crime as a phenomenon on an individual as well as at a social level. Approaching from a socio-scientific point of view, Criminology involves the study of various forms of crime, the reasons working behind an incidence of crime, and its consequences. In other words, it examines society's response to crime and prevention of crime. It is the scientific investigation of crime through analysis of evidence. Criminology includes the examination of evidence, hereditary and psychological causes of crime, various modes of investigation and conviction and the efficiencies of differing styles of punishment, rehabilitation and corrections. Criminology involves studying all these aspects associated with crime in general. Criminology is the study of factors of criminality. In other sense, it is evaluating the circumstances that provoked to do the crime and preventing/regulating future chances to do such crime. Criminology being an interdisciplinary subject, it derives its theory from the fields of sociology, psychology and law. Causes of crime and methods of preventing crime are the two most important aspects of the study of criminology. Other areas of interest in this field of study are - Crime Statistics, Criminal Behavior, Penology, Evaluation of criminal justice agencies, Sociology of Law, Criminal careers and desistance.
A person professionally qualified in the subject of criminology is called a criminologist. The primary task of criminologists is to determine the reasons why people get into committing illegal activities. With the increasing numbers of crime and rapid diversification in the nature of it, criminology is gaining importance in today's society. So if you are interested in the study of criminology or criminal justice, then you can become a criminologist. Criminologists often focus on specific types of crimes. Some work with murders, some with armed robbery, others with vandalism, some with rape, others with serial crimes of different sorts. They study as many cases as possible, and use the results to formulate theories which can in turn be useful in preventing crimes in the future. Professional may alternatively specialize in crime prevention, crime scene investigation, criminal litigation, corrections, rehabilitation, or the privatization of prisons.
The responsibilities and requirements differ drastically from one job to another. There are criminology administration jobs that require organization skills, as well as court reporter jobs that require excellent writing skills and knowledge of the justice system. Criminologists and investigators need certain specialized skills, such as keen observation and logical thinking skills. All jobs in the field of criminology require absolute trust in the legal system, as well as integrity in upholding truth and justice.
After pursuing Criminology course, you can apply for a variety of jobs in India as well as abroad. Every job in the field of Criminology is challenging and unique, and a criminologist has to be fully-committed to his duties. You should expect to go through difficult moments as a criminologist, since you have to deal with all kinds of people, including criminals with a deviant mindset. A qualified criminologist can take up the jobs of teaching, counseling, rehabilitation of criminals. Teaching is one of the main profession that post graduates can pursue. Universities and government agencies employ professional criminologists for advanced teaching and research and policy assessment. Furthermore public and private sector companies along with social welfare organizations require the services of a qualified criminologist in India. Jobs of counseling, rehabilitation of criminals are also open to the qualified criminologists. Corporations or financial institutions, major department stores and law firms employ security officers, private investigators or social workers. They can also find employment in drug enforcement agencies. Federal Bureau of Investigation, NGOs, research organizations, private security and detective agencies also recruit criminology professionals.
The job prospectus for people well versed in the field of criminology is even brighter outside India. A criminologist can be hired in foreign police departments as well as state medical examiners. Other typical jobs include Law reform researcher, Regional crime prevention coordinator, Consumer advocate and Environment protection analyst.
Criminologists may work in variety of settings including classrooms, crime scenes, medical examiner offices, courthouses, prisons, police stations, or private offices. Criminologists may use their education and training to move onto other jobs either in psychological study or law enforcement.
• Diversion programming
• Criminal Investigation
• Financial Fraud Investigation & Prevention
• Insurance Fraud Investigation & Prevention
• Intervention Programming
• Judicial / Courts
• Law Enforcement
• Medical Investigation
• Research and Policy Studies
• Private Investigation
• Psychologist - Psychopathology Specialist
• Retail Investigation
• Special Agencies
Educational: There are a number of institutes and universities offering courses at Graduate (B.A/B.Sc ) and Post Graduate level( M.A/M.Sc ) in India as well as abroad. If you are planning for a Bachelors degree in Criminology, then you must have completed your higher secondary schooling in Arts or Science. The eligibility norm for a Masters program is a graduate degree in Arts or Science with 50% marks aggregate.
Personal attributes: A criminologist, like a psychologist, must be interested in human nature and behavior. One who is interested in this career must have creativity, analytical thinking capacity, problem solving ability, public speaking skill and ability to convince people. A criminologist must be able to express ideas and concepts clearly, both in writing and verbally. A criminologist may need to address large groups of people and demonstrate good public speaking skills as well. Criminologist working in prisons, law firms etc. must be able to read the mind of the person and counsel them. Strong research and analysis skills are vital as so much of the job involves data collection and interpretation. Such a professional must be computer literate and proficient in computer and Internet use, especially research related to criminology. This professional must be dedicated to the profession of criminology and its goals of improving the criminal rehabilitation system and preventing crime.
The criminologist salary differs a lot depending on the position of employment. The criminologist salary depends on many other factors such as city of employment, service criteria of private employers etc. For a fresher the monthly salary varies from Rs.4,000-Rs.9,000 which gradually increases in the course of time. In case of experienced candidates remuneration is quite high and varies from Rs.8,000-Rs.15,000. Payscale for job abroad is also quite bright.